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Department of Physiotherapy
Physiotherapy is used to help restore or increase strength and movement in joints that have been affected by pain, injury or stroke. It is also used to reduce pain, inflammation and muscle spasm. Stroke, arthritis, fractures, and nerve lesions (damage) are also common conditions treated. Some of the conditions that physical therapists manage include:
Types of Physiotherapy offered at SSSIHMS:
Please note that the physical therapy programs offered at the SSSIHMS WFD are for inpatients only.
Moist heat, cryotherapy, wax bath
Interferential therapy, Ultra sound therapy, Shortwave diathermy, Microwave Diathermy, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator.
Therapeutic exercises, Relaxed passive movements, Postural Drainage, Therapeutic massage.
Intensive Care Unit physiotherapy:
This has two aspects chest and limb physiotherapy:
This is done to mobilise and remove all secretions from the lungs and tracheal regions of post operative patients. Secretions are generally inflammatory responses of the body to intubation and surgical procedures.
Early mobilization of the patient; prevent bed sores, Muscle atrophy and Deep Vein Thrombosis; and to maintain joint range of motion.
Generally various therapeutic physical therapy modalities are available, including exercise prescription (strength, motor control, stretching and endurance), manual techniques (joint mobilization/manipulation), soft tissue massage, and various forms of so-called electrophysical agents; (such as cryotherapy, heat therapy, iontophoresis and electrotherapy). Examination, history, and analysis of movement dysfunction decide which modality to use.
Cardiopulmonary physical therapists work with patients in a variety of settings. They treat acute problems like asthma and acute chest infections; they are involved in the preparation and recovery of patients from major surgery; they also treat a wide range of chronic cardiac and respiratory conditions like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), post-myocardial infarction (MI) and post CABG. They work with all ages from premature babies to older adults at the end of their life. Physical therapists are pioneering new management techniques for non-organic respiratory problems like hyperventilation and other stress-related disorders as well as leading the development of cardio-pulmonary rehabilitation and non-invasive ventilation.
Cardiopulmonary physical therapists use physical modalities to treat people. This may involve using manual techniques to clear infected mucus from a person’s chest, or using non-invasive ventilation to help a person breathe, or prescribing exercises to improve a patient’s functional exercise capacity.
Treatment in neurological conditions is typically based upon exercises to restore motor and sensory functions through attempting to overcome motor deficits and improve motor patterns. This is generally patient specific since most of such physical therapy is at the bed side (ICU, Ward). Some of the conditions treated are, paraplegia, hemiplegia, post tumour decompression, discectomies, Atlanto Axial Dislocations, etc.
Treatment of conditions involving the skin and related organs. Common conditions include wounds and burns. Treatment interventions include debridement of wounds and burns, dressings, scar prevention and reduction. In the SSSIHMS the physiotherapist releases contractures formed by surgical or burn scars.
In Hydrotherapy, exercises are done under water in a tub or channel. The movement can be performed more easily under water than air because the buoyancy in water eliminates gravity.
These Hot packs usually consist of a silicate gel called Bentonite. The temperature of the ‘Hot Water Tank’ where the Hot Packs to be immersed is in the range between 75 to 80 degrees celsius. The heat energy obtained from the hot packs is used to relieve pain and induce relaxation.
This is a treatment involving the external application of Ice. This is the oldest and most common treatment.The temperature of the skin over the ailment is reduced to 10°C during the treatment.
Paraffin wax is used for the treatment. The temperature of the wax is in the range between 40° to 44°c. The heat energy obtained from the hot wax is used to relieve pain and stiffness of the joints.
Interferential Therapy (IFT) uses a Mid frequency – current for treatment.
This involves usage of sound waves of a very high frequency, beyond the range of human hearing. The frequencies of waves employed for medical purposes are between 5,00,000 and 3,000,000 cycles/sec. Ultrasonic waves are generated by vibration of a Crystal mounted on a special head. The treatment time in the Initial Stage – 3 to 4 min and in severe stage is 6 to 8 min.
Short Wave diathermy current is a high frequency alternating current. The heat energy obtained from the wave is used for giving relief to the patient. Its frequency is 27,120,000 cycles per second with a wavelength of 11 metres. There are two types of applications: The condenser field method (commonly used), Cable method.
It’s an electromagnetic wave used for treatment purposes with wavelength between infra-red rays and short wave diathermic waves.The heat energy obtained from the wave is used for giving relief to the patient. The waves are obtained by heating special type of valve called Magnetron. The output is carried to a small aerial and microwaves are emitted
It is also called manual training in physical therapy and includes training for individuals who have difficulty in limb functionality. Parallel walking bars, Quadriceps table, Step trainer, Static cycle, Shoulder pulleys, Mariner’s wheel, Swiss Ball, Finger exercising are some of the techniques used in Exercise Therapy. Consider for example: A person affected by a stroke may have varying degrees of mobility ranging from partial movement to total incapacitation. Training such a person to walk involves goalsetting (Training the person to use crutches/wheelchairs/artificial limbs), milestones, reevaluation of exercises, till maximum mobility is attained.
This is a kind of exercise, taught to improve the overall physical activity of the body to strengthens the Muscles, bones, joints and Ligament
Relaxed Passive Movements:
It is a Movement performed on the Joints by the Therapist, when the muscles or joints are affected. The purpose of the exercise is to obtain full range of the movement in the joint, For General relaxation, Memorization of the Movement pattern (Bed ridden person), for Lymph Drainage.
Postural drainage is placing the patient in different positions, to drain out the secretions of the lungs by the assistance of gravity.
Massage is one of the oldest of the health sciences and has been used for curative purposes since time immemorial. Massage treatment uses touch to apply pressure to the body’s skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments. The idea of Massage is to ease disorders by: relieving tension, promoting blood flow, calming nerves, loosening muscles.Modes of Therapeutic Massage include: