Percutaneous Transluminal Mitral Commissurotomy PTMC
PTMC is a procedure where a balloon is used to dilate a stenosed mitral valve by threading it onto a catheter that is maneuvered into the mitral valve site. The most beneficial and effective technique was developed by Inoue in 1982.
PDA coil closure
A steel or MRI compatible metal coil is placed across the PDA to help In thrombotic closure – Thrombus (Clot) formation occurs on the metal coil and the PDA is sealed.
Pulmonary Valve Balloon Dilatation PVBD
This is done for Pulmonary valvular stenosis. A balloon catheter is maneuvered into the pulmonary valve through a right heart catheterization procedure and is inflated (valve is dilated) in a single stage.
Aortic Valve Balloon Dilatation AVBD
This is done for Aortic valvular Stenosis. A balloon catheter is maneuvered into the pulmonary valve through a left heart catheterization procedure and is inflated (valve is dilated) in a single stage.
Coarctation of Aorta Dilatation
When there is a block in the Aorta after the arch (thoracic or abdominal segments) obstructing the flow to the lower limbs of the body, a balloon is placed across this obstruction and inflated clearing the way for the blood to flow.
The standard angiogram procedure is performed for other vascular structures of the body under investigation for obstructions/anomalies.
Pericardial Effusion Tapping (PE Tapping)
A catheter is inserted through the intercostal spaces (between the ribs) into the pericardial sac and pre-calculated (excess) pericardial fluid is aspirated (removed) using a syringe. The position of catheter confirmed using fluoroscopy and the liquid level is assessed using echocardiography.
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA)
This is a generic name given to the interventional procedure that follows the angiogram. Angioplasty attempts to bring the vasculature back to normal through different means (stent, removal of plaque…). This procedure can be done anywhere in the body and the name changes according to the location such as: Coronary, Renal, Abdominal, Sub-Clavian, Carotid, Iliac, Brachial, Femoral, etc.
More of a palliative procedure. A Sub Aortic Membrane, which is absent in a normal heart, causes obstruction to blood flow out of the Left Ventricle into the aorta. A balloon is inflated in the membrane area to suppress the growth so as to improve blood flow. It is generally considered not very effective. Surgery is the final option.
Tricuspid Valve Balloon Dilatation (TVBD)
Procedure similar to PTMC but the tricuspid valve is involved.
Balloon Atrial Septostomy (BAS)
This is a unique procedure to enable the mixing of pure and impure blood which enhances survival of the patient. This is normally done within one week to three months of birth generally for DTGA situations.